Pesticides are used only when necessary. The National Turf Evaluation Program (NTEP) trial research provides detailed grass types and cultivar data for your region and use. It prefers acidic soils and low levels of phosphorus and may not require the addition of lime and phosphorus. The pigment products work best for darkening existing green color, whereas colorants may be applied to brown turf for a green color. A stage in the development of certain insects where the young resemble the adult in form, eat the same food, and reside in the same environment. If you plan to seed a cool-season grass in the fall, such as tall fescue or Kentucky bluegrass, and your lawn site is ready for seeding in late March, April, May, or June, you can obtain a weak, temporary cover to hold the soil in place by seeding annual ryegrass. A spacing greater than 12-inches is not suggested when plugging on bare ground. Seeding. Lay sod lengthwise across the face of slopes, and peg or stake the pieces to prevent slippage. Under certain circumstances, some tall fescue may be lost if a drought exceeds three weeks. Allow several weeks for the results to be returned. Lime. Several newer cultivars, however, can also be seeded that have a medium texture. Plugging is planting individual pieces (2 inches or larger) of sod on 6-inch to 24-inch centers. Preplanting renovation procedures are designed to create the optimum environment for the establishment of newly planted grasses. Use a fertilizer safe for seeding. Keep unnecessary traffic off the renovated lawn until it is well established. Every three to four weeks during the growing season, add 0.5 to 1 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 sq ft until the plants have completely covered the desired lawn area. Much like grass types in Nashville, TN, grass types in Raleigh, NC can be divided into two main categories, warm-season or cool-season grasses, and branch off from there. Rake or harrow the site to establish a smooth and level final grade. For seeded lawns: Fertilize the new seedlings approximately six to eight weeks after emergence. As the seedlings, plugs, or sprigs grow, continue to decrease the frequency of waterings while increasing the duration to promote deep rooting. It may contain hard-to-control weeds or weed seeds.). Cool-season grasses, for example, which are usually grown in the Mountains region, are best … These numbers denote the N-P-K ratio—the percentage of each nutrient in a fertilizer. Tillage or renovation techniques such as vertical mowing, coring, or slicing should be delayed for seven days after application to allow proper movement of the herbicide into underground parts of the weeds. Pre-emergence herbicides, such as siduron (Tupersan) and bensulide (Betasan), can be applied for annual weedy grass control after sodding cool- and warm-season grasses. Warm-season grasses are slow to green up in the spring, grow best in the summer, and go dormant after the first heavy frost. of fescue seed for every 1,000 square feet of lawn. Overseeding your lawn in North Carolina is a great way to get a thick healthy lawn and fill in bare spots, but it’s important to find just the right time of the year to do it. Warm-season weeds are also much less active at this time of year. As a general rule, plant cool-season grass seed at least 45 days before the estimated date of your first fall frost, before soil and air temperatures drop to less favorable levels. People are becoming more aware of and concerned about the effects of chemicals on our environment. Zoysiagrass cultivars were once limited to two cultivars: Meyer and the finer textured Emerald. Kentucky bluegrass should be mowed at a height of 1.5 to 2.5 inches when planted alone. In the last 20 years, a number of zoysiagrass cultivars have been released. In space planting, always leave some part of the plant or spring above the ground. The frequency of mowing is governed by the desired grass height and by the amount of growth, which depends on temperature, fertility, moisture conditions, season, and the natural growth rate of the grass. The cultivar Raleigh has the best cold tolerance and is well adapted for the eastern side of the piedmont and the western side of the coastal plain. Some plant species may exhibit more tolerance than others. But because the leaves are stiff, mowing can be difficult unless the mower blades are sharp. Kentucky bluegrass produces a high-quality, medium- to fine-textured turf, at least when grown in the right climate. They grow best in the summer, go dormant in the fall at the first heavy frost, turn brown, and then green up slowly the following spring. These range from nematodes that attack caterpillars to traps and repellents. Hand raking is the best way to level the soil and work out hills and hollows. Cultivar texture ranges from coarse to fine, and it forms a dense, durable surface when grown in full sunlight. Water the area to enhance settling. Spray most postemergence broadleaf herbicides four to six weeks before seeding. Ideally, the fertilizer should have a 3-1-2 or 4-1-2 analysis (for example, 12-4-8 or 16-4-8), and one-fourth to one-half of the nitrogen should be a slow-release form. Lightly cover the seed by hand raking or dragging with a mat or span of chain-link fence. Zoysiagrass, St. Augustinegrass, and centipedegrass are often planted by plugging. There are some better suited for shady areas, while others need full sun. Boxes and forms can be obtained at your county Cooperative Extension center or at the Agronomic Division office in Raleigh. The plant will re-seed itself in zones above 5. It grows best in full sunlight and does not tolerate cold, drought, salt, or traffic. It is a reliable performer and easily started from seed. This is especially important if you are planting centipedegrass. NC State University and NC St. Augustinegrass grows best in fertile, well-drained soils. A cultivated variety of a species, such as K-31 and Rebel. At high rates of fertilization and irrigation, thatch buildup may become a problem. Cool-season grasses grow best in the spring and fall and less actively in the summer. If this ratio cannot be located, then a straight-grade analysis product (for example, 10-10-10) may be used at a 0.5 to 0.75 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 sq ft rate. Start planting your cool season grass seeds when the fall temperatures reach … commitment to diversity. Fine fescues may be used in un-mown natural areas. Planting dates and rates for cool- and warm-season grasses in North Carolina. The North Carolina Native Plant Society encourages the creation of native plant … This is an excellent way to introduce a more adapted lawn grass into an old lawn in an effort to replace old grass by crowding out. Well-prepared soil with adequate nutrients for growing grass encourages the development of a healthy lawn (Figure 2). Establishing Good Seed to Soil Contact. Attempts to upgrade existing lawns when conditions are not conducive to good growth are difficult at best. This is the preferred time to water because it reduces the risk of disease, water loss through evaporation, and improper water distribution. Soils that are subject to heavy traffic are prone to compaction. A list of producers growing certified sod can be found on the NCCIA website. A 6- to 12-inch spacing should be used for more rapid establishment, whereas using a wider spacing may delay fill for greater than one year. It is suitable for both full sun and shade and is the choice of sod growers across the United States. Consider your lawn established when you have mowed it three times. Carpetgrass is a slow- and low-growing, medium-green, coarsely textured lawngrass. Other herbicides may be applied to young seedlings during establishment. Your decision should be based on region, climate, intended use or wear at the site, and desired appearance. Generally, late winter … Apply a starter-type fertilizer, such as 10 pounds per 1,000 square feet of 5-10-10 fertilizer. Most homeowners bag lawn clippings because they think that the clippings add to the buildup of thatch, which can be harmful to the lawn. These cultivars, such as El Toro, Crowne, Palisades, Empire, Atlantic, and Jamur, are coarser in texture (similar to newer tall fescues) and are quicker to establish and recover from injury. Plants with flattened leaves; dicots, plants that possess two seedling leaves. Large areas of 15,000 sq ft or more can be sprigged using this method, which is often reserved for bermudagrass. When temperatures warm up, the grass will begin to grow anew. During decomposition they release valuable nutrients. The sprigs are pressed into the top 0.5 to 1 inch of soil by hand or by using an old disk set straight, special planter, cultipacker, or roller. Apply half the seed in one direction and the other half moving at right angles to the first pass (Figure 3). These grasses complement each other because perennial ryegrass establishes faster than Kentucky bluegrass, and Kentucky bluegrass has the ability to spread and fill in damaged areas. Lawn Care Maintenance Calendars for specific grass types are available online on the NC State TurfFiles website. Water clay soils until runoff is about to occur. Uneven ground can make mowing below 1 inch difficult. In turf, the working of the soil without the destruction of the turf. Herbicide that kills or injures some plants without harming others. Sow 6 to 8 lbs. The resting stage of a plant or ripe seeds during which nearly all manifestations of life come to an almost complete standstill. Removal of soil cores from a turf with hollow tines or spoons. Grasses used in North Carolina generally consists of warm season grasses such as: bermuda, zoysia, centipede, and carpet grass is even used in shady, wet areas of the state. Experts recommend that a blend of two or three cultivars be planted rather than seeding just a single cultivar. Keeping the lawn healthy enables it to tolerate low levels of pests and makes the area a good habitat for beneficial organisms that help control pests. Specific tolerance may be associated with an anatomical or physiological characteristic in the plant. Several passes with a dethatcher (power raker or vertical mower) is usually the best choice for large areas. Seed is unavailable, so cultivars must be vegetatively planted. This mixture may be used in shady sites rather than using fine fescues. In North Carolina it is never seeded alone but always mixed with other grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass. Tall fescue is best adapted to the mountains and piedmont but can be successfully maintained on the heavy silt loams in the coastal plain. Determine the amount of fertilizer, ratio of nutrients or fertilizer elements, and time of application based on the grasses being grown. The darker green color provided by the iron products typically lasts 2 to 4 weeks. Cool season grasses. Applying 0.5 inch of water every three to four days is adequate for most situations. Mow at the proper height. Fortunately, many books and other educational materials are now available to assist the homeowner. Therefore, 5 pounds of fertilizer per 1,000 sq ft will deliver 0.5 pound of nitrogen. Rainfall or irrigation is often needed to move the chemical into the top few inches of the soil for best activity. This can be accomplished by allowing the drought stress symptoms to appear between infrequent irrigation cycles, by mowing high, and by not over-fertilizing with nitrogen. These are some of the major causes of turf deterioration: The problems that caused the lawn to deteriorate must be corrected before the renovation process begins. Study the chart to help select the appropriate grass for the site and the intended use of the lawn. Do not apply these herbicides over the rooting areas of trees and ornamentals that are not listed as being tolerant on the herbicide label. The chemical in a pesticide that controls the target pest. Apply half the fertilizer in one direction and the other half moving at right angles to the first pass to ensure thorough and uniform coverage (Figure 3). Winter is usually best, however, because there is less traffic. Early fall (late August to early October) is the best time to overseed your lawn. Apply half the fertilizer in one direction and the other half moving at right angles to the first pass to ensure uniform coverage (Figure 3). Use a complete N-P-K turf-grade fertilizer that provides about 1 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 sq ft or the amount recommended on your soil test. Centipedegrass grows best with more acidic soil with a pH close to 5.5. Cross-section of space planting. Warm-season grasses. Large areas planted with bermudagrass or zoysiagrass sprigs require a minimum of 3 to 5 bushels of sprigs per 1,000 square feet and 5 to 10 bushels (yards) for extremely fast cover. Warm-season grasses can be fertilized every four weeks until coverage is complete. Roll the area to firm the soil and ensure sprig-to-soil contact. This publication printed on: Dec. 22, 2020, Carolina Lawns: A Guide to Maintaining Quality Turf in the Landscape, NC State TurfFiles Turf Select Decision Aid, North Carolina Crop Improvement Association, NC Begin mowing as soon as the grass is 50 percent higher than the desired height. This same technique can be used on slopes and compacted soils. Find your region in the map in Figure 1. Broadcasting is the uniform distribution of sprigs (cut stems) over the entire area. Atrazine (AAtrex) or simazine (Princep) may be applied for control of certain annual grass and broadleaf weeds when sprigging bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass. 50 divided by 10 equals 5. Siduron (Tupersan 50WP) may be applied to cool-season grasses at the time of spring seeding for selective pre-emergence control of some annual grassy weeds like crabgrass. Warm-Season Grass Warm-season grasses, which grow well throughout the state, should be planted in the spring. Generally, Kentucky bluegrass grows better than tall fescue in moderate shade. Fill in low areas, and smooth the surface so clods are smaller than marbles. Fertilizer use can be reduced by 20 to 30 percent. This application will not improve the longevity of tall fescue but will enhance its green color. In small bare spots, loosen the top 4 to 6 inches of the soil with a rake, hoe, or shovel. Avoid stretching sod. When seed is put down in early spring (March to mid-June), it won’t germinate until the soil temperature is consistently 55 degrees. So, you need to actually do your research and decide what would be the smartest choice for you and your lawn. Because tines have a difficult time penetrating dry, compacted soils, coring is best achieved when the soil is damp. An above-ground creeping stem that can produce roots and shoots at each node. Tall fescue, bermudagrass, and zoysiagrass are tolerant of drought if allowed to go dormant. The schedule for planting grass depends on what kind of grass you're planting. Choose the best grass seed. If seeding of a cool-season grass is not accomplished in the fall, your best alternative date for the piedmont is mid-February to early March. Send approximately 1 cup of the air-dried soil sample to the NCDA&CS Agronomic Division Soil Testing Services, 1040 Mail Service Center, Raleigh NC 27699-1040. By making the proper choices, you can create a durable lawn that will grow with minimal maintenance and pesticide use. They are very slow to establish from plugs, often taking three years for total coverage when planted on 12-inch centers. If applied evenly and lightly, these materials need not be removed. A few cultivars of zoysiagrass, such as Compadre, Zenith, Zen 100, and Zen 300CS, can be seeded. Hard-to-control weeds may require the services of a professional. If clippings are heavy enough to hold the grass down or shade it, catch them or rake and remove them. This gives … Zoysia seed should be planted in late spring / early summer after soil temperatures are 70+ degrees (day time 80+ consistent) AND all danger of freeze / frost is past. Slowly ease a lush, actively growing lawn into dormancy. Plant development at or near the soil surface that results in lateral spreading by rhizomes, stolons, or both. — Read our Homeowners must now look for other alternatives. This will bring soil to the surface with minimal disruption and create an environment for good seed-to-soil contact. Area of adaptation of turfgrasses in North Carolina. Selection of seeds or plants is especially important when establishing a lawn. Tall fescue may turn brown, yet can often survive short periods of drought. Many new cultivars with improved color, texture, and pest resistance are now commercially available. Based on frost dates and planting … The second group of products is not a nutrient. Centipedegrass is slow to establish and may take two to three years when seeded. Make certain the soil is firmed after shaping. When not excessive, thatch buildup can be removed from warm-season grasses by cutting as closely as possible at spring green-up and then raking by hand. It is safe to use on new seeds and is designed to make new seed grow quicker and thicker. Surveys show that an attractive, well-landscaped lawn can even add to the value of your home. Site and soil preparation, including fertilization, are especially important. Some of these are quite effective, whereas the effectiveness of others has not been documented. Using a sharp mower is especially important for difficult-to-mow grasses, such as zoysiagrass, bahiagrass, and certain types of perennial ryegrass cultivars. The balanced use of all available control methods is called Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Based on frost dates and planting … It takes 640 gallons of water to apply 1 inch of water per 1,000 sq ft. Because clay soils accept water slowly, water should be measured to prevent wasteful runoff. Removal of debris with rapidly rotating vertical tines or brush. An underground creeping stem that can produce roots and shoots at each node. A dark bluish-gray color; footprints that remain some time after walking; and wilted, folded, or curled leaves are indications that it is time to water. Keep renovated areas moist with light sprinklings several times a day. High temperatures of summer can cause these plants to go dormant and thus planting during summer is asking for problems. Warm-season grasses are best planted in late spring and early summer. Treat only those areas that need it. Hand rake again to break up the crusty surface before planting. Always consider rainfall events when irrigating turfgrasses. For assistance, contact your local N.C. Perennial ryegrass should be mowed at 1.5 to 2.5 inches when mixed with Kentucky bluegrass. It loves hot weather and grows best when temperatures are 90-100 degrees. Research indicates that pesticide use poses a minimal threat to the health of humans, animals, and the environment. The reel mower is preferred if grasses are cut to less than 1 inch. Even when the soil temperature is warm enough to germinate … They may not persist in sunny locations exposed to high temperature extremes, excessive soil moisture or humidity, or heavy traffic. This is especially true as you move toward the coastal plain. Our goal at Jonathan Green is to help you grow a vibrant healthy lawn, and we provide everything you need to accomplish the task. The best grass seed for zone 6 will depend upon your needs. Vegetative planting is necessary for some grasses that do not produce viable seed (seed that will germinate). Find more information at the following NC State Extension websites: Publication date: May 23, 2016 Fertilize before planting. St. Augustinegrass is a fast-growing turfgrass best adapted to the coastal plain. Press them into the top 0.5 to 1 inch of soil using an old disk set straight, special planter, cultipacker, or roller. Unlike warm-season grasses, cool-season grasses remain green throughout most of the winter. Most finely textured, high-quality turf-type bermudagrasses are planted using sod, sprigs, or plugs. Success of any grass seeding process depends largely on good seed to soil contact. Thatch may need to be removed every two to three years, but care should be taken because the recovery rate of these cultivars is very slow. In spring, mow the grass for best appearance. The percentages are always noted in the following order: Make sure the soil is moist (but not overly wet) before laying sod. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Regardless of the region, a deeper root system is able to extract more moisture and nutrients from the soil, improving drought tolerance and overall health of the plant. Using the planting schedules below will help you get the most out of your garden. In transition zone states, such as North Carolina or Arkansas, September is typically the best month for planting tall fescue seed. Both cool-season (northern) and warm-season (southern) grasses are grown in North Carolina. Use a plugging device to remove plugs of soil from bare areas, and switch them with plugs collected from healthy areas. What Is the Best Grass Seed for a North Carolina Drought? Figure 1. These cultivars must be planted vegetatively, and are low- and slow-growing. Use the seeding rates as suggested for new establishment unless seeding into existing vegetation. These characteristics become more evident as the turf matures and the maintenance level increases. The NC State TurfFiles Turf Select Decision Aid program is a free online tool designed to guide homeowners through the turf selection process. Ideally, this would not be applied in one application. Roll the soil lightly to firm the surface, and provide good seed-to-soil contact. The BEST time to plant Bermuda Grass Seed is in late spring / early summer after soil temperatures are 65-70+ degrees or higher and all danger of freeze or frost is past. If irrigation is not available or desirable, then an alternative to irrigating is to allow the turf to go semi-dormant to dormant. Alternatively, trying to plant a wrong type of grass seed in snow might actually not help at all even if you pour sacks of seed there. Plugs should also be planted in late … Chop up the cores (often accomplished with a mower) and, if possible, distribute them by dragging with a span of chain-link fence or a mat. Apply 45 to 50 pounds of ground limestone per 1,000 sq ft. Herbicide that injures only those portions of a plant with which it comes into contact. When this method is used, the planting material must be kept fresh and moist from removal site to planting area. Zone 6 is considered a cool season grass … Avoid any significant nitrogen fertilization of cool-season grasses, such as tall fescue, after the February application until September for the central piedmont. A soil test should be made at least every two to three years to determine the amounts of lime, phosphorus, and potassium needed by your established lawn. It produces a low maintenance, general purpose turf. A seed lot inspected to meet minimum standards and to ensure trueness to type for a given cultivar. Sodding is placing sod stripped from one site to another for an “instant” lawn. Failure to identify and correct the exact problem can lead to further lawn deterioration and the need for repeated renovation. Because annual ryegrass is an annual, it must be re-seeded each fall. Thus hot weather … Perennial ryegrass is similar in appearance to Kentucky bluegrass, but is only adapted to the mountains for use as a monostand turf. Most selective post- emergence herbicides that control annual grassy weeds, such as crabgrass, should also be applied at least four weeks before seeding. Sodding: Warm-season grasses are best established by sodding at the same dates suggested for seeding, about April until July 1. The basal portion of the leaf surrounding the grass stem. It germinates the … A comparative chart of principal lawn grasses used in each region is provided in Table 1. Lawn renovation refers to any procedure beyond normal maintenance (short of soil modification) required to upgrade an existing lawn. Bermudagrass lawns perform best when mowed at 0.75 to 1 inch using a reel mower. Bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, carpetgrass, and bahiagrass are classified as warm-season perennial grasses. A plant that starts from seed and completes its life cycle within the same growing season. Apply fertilizer and lime. Annual Ryegrass Care in Spring. One way to be sure you have seed or planting material that is true to type, free of noxious weed seed, and contains low levels of other crop seed, is to purchase certified seed or sod. Apply fertilizer and lime when the soil is prepared based on these guidelines: If you obtained a soil test: Apply the amount of lime and fertilizer recommended for your soil by the soil testing laboratory. Spacing is determined by how fast the grass will spread, how fast you want it to cover, and how much material you have available. Collected clippings can be used as mulch around trees and shrubs or added to compost, unless the turfgrass was treated with a herbicide that may harm the trees or shrubs. Rake, bag, and remove the clippings when mowing is delayed. Instead of following the above suggestions, you may wish to seed the desired cool-season grass. Zoysiagrass (Emerald and Meyer cultivars), This and other Extension publications about lawns (such as maintenance calendars, recommended cultivar lists, pest factsheets, pest control recommendations, pest management manual) are available on the. Large areas and areas that contain 50 percent desirable grasses are best prepared for seeding by using a piece of equipment (such as an aerator or coring machine) that brings small soil cores to the surface. 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